1865

Jan - May

After the Union and Confederate armies left, Cobb County became prey to bands of robbers who pillaged the already devastated residents. Cobb County residents at the time attributed these atrocious act to the Northern army, when in fact, the pillaging occurred mostly at the hands of Confederate stragglers and deserters. These marauders would exert their impressment authority, whether they actually had such authority or not, and seize portable property and provisions. Some would take no pretentions of any authority and just take anything they could from homes and farms of refugees or defenseless citizens.

Food became a desperate problem for the remaining and returning refugees of Cobb County. Flour was $100 per sack, bacon $3 a pound, and butter $10 a pound. Shoes were $60 to $125, depending on the quality, but no one had money for flour or shoes.

The problem worsened when the value of confederate currency plummeted. On April 20, one dollar in gold could be purchased for $100 confederate dollars. By May 1, however, the cost of a one-dollar gold piece was $1200 in Confederate money.

 

April 9

General Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.

 

April 26

Sherman and Johnston agree to an armistice in North Carolina. General Johnston surrendered his forces from North Carolina to the Chattahoochee River in Georgia.

 

May 2

President Lincoln orders the arrest of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. It was rumored that Davis left Richmond and was headed to Atlanta via Marietta. Once again, Cobb County was swarming with Northern troops who were sent there to search for Davis.

 

May 12

Cobb County's last link with the Confederacy was broken when General William T. Wofford surrendered his Confederate troops in north Georgia.

 

June - Aug

Although the precise date of its establishment is unknown, a Freedman's Bureau was in operation on the north side of the square in Marietta in June 1864. The purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau was assist the freed slaves in obtaining fair wages and work contracts, and to otherwise see that their rights and liberties as free people were not violated.

 

June 27

The south was divided into military divisions, departments and districts. General J. D. Stevenson commanded the district which included Cobb County. This regime was considered temporary pending the appointment of a provisional government and encouraged participation by loyal citizens.

 

August 11

Trains began running from Chattanooga to Atlanta despite the resistance of Washington D.C. to rebuild the railroads in rebel territory. The railroads were essential for transporting supplies to Federal troops manning the military districts. In addition it would alleviate the number of refugees amassed in Atlanta who had run out of resources and energy to make their way home.

 

October

On the first Wednesday in October an election of delegates was held in Cobb County. The purpose of these delegates was to attend a convention to restore the State of Georgia to its federal relationships. All voters and candidate were required to take the amnesty oath. Cobb county citizens elected William D. Anderson, Andrew J. Hansell and David Irwin as their delegates. These three men attended the State Convention in Milledgeville where the first order of business was to repeal the ordinance of secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the war debt.

 

November

On November 15 and election was held in Cobb County. Napoleon B. Green and John O. Gantrell were elected as representatives to the legislature. Former Confederate General William T. Wofford was elected congressman from the Seventh District but was never seated.